104
Chapter 4
Table 43 Heat of combustion for various compounds at standard conditions
1
and pH 7.
Compound
Formula
Degree of reduction
(k*) per carbon
- a
h ;
(kJ/molel
- a h :
fkJ/C-molel
-A ffe°/K*
(kJ/C-molel
Formic acid
CH
2
0
2
2
.
255
255
C
127.5
Acetic acid
C
2
H
4
0
2
4
875
437
109.5
Propionic acid
CjH,^
4.67
1527
509
109.0
Butyric acid
C
4
H
8
0
2
5.00
2184
546
109.2
Valeric acid
C
5
H,o0
2
5.20
2841
568
109.2
Palmitic acid
C
16
H
32
0
2
5.75
9978b
624
108.5
Lactic acid
C
3
H
6
0
3
4
1367
456
114.0
Gluconic acid
CsH]2Ot
3.67
Pyruvic acid
c 3H4o 3
3.33
Oxalic acid
C
2
H
2
0
4
1
246
123
123.0
Succinic acid
C
4
H$0
4
3.50
1491
373
106.6
Fumaric acid
C
4
H
40 4
3
1335
334
111.3
Malic acid
c 4H6o 5
3
1328
332
110.7
Citric acid
C
6
H
8
0
7
3
1961
327
109.0
Glucose
c 6H|2o 6
4
2803
467
116.8
Fructose
C
6
H
12
0
6
4
2813
469
117.2
Galactose
c 6H12o6
4
2805
468
117.0
Sucrose
4
5644
470
117.5
Lactose
C
\
2
H
22011
4
5651
471
117.8
Hydrogen
H
2
2
286
Methane
CH+
8
890c
890
111.3
Ethane
C
2
H
6
7
1560c
780
111.4
Propane
c 3H8
6.67
2 220
c
740
110.9
Methanol
CH,0
6
727
727
12 1.2
Ethanol
C
2
H60
6
1367
683
113.8
iso
-Propanol
C^HgO
6
2020
673
1 12 .2
M-Butanol
C^HiqO
6
2676
669
111.5
Ethylene glycol
c,h
6
o
2
5
1179
590
118.0
Glycerol
c 3Hgo 3
4.67
1661
554
118.6
Acetone
CsHsO
5.33
1790
597
112 .0
Formaldehyde
CH20
4
57 lc
571
142.8
Acetaldehyde
C
2
H40
5
1166
583
116.6
Urea
CILONj
6
632
632
105.3
Ammonia
NH
3
3
383°
(127.7)
Biomass
c h ,
8
o
0
.
3
n
0.2
4.80
560
560
116.7
*
298 K and 1
atm, liquid water, C02 dissolved and dissociated in H20.
11
Solid form,
' Gaseous form.
The average value of (-A
H^t
K* for the compounds in Table 4.3 is 115 kJ m ole'1
with a standard
deviation of 6-7 kJ mole'1.
From the additive property of A
H
(and A G ) one obtains equation (4.10) for the enthalpy change in
previous page 128 Bioreaction Engineering Principles, Second Edition  read online next page 130 Bioreaction Engineering Principles, Second Edition  read online Home Toggle text on/off