Bioreaction Engineering: From Bioprocess Design to Systems Biology
3
Table 1.1
Definition of research areas where biochemical engineers play an important role
Term
Definition
Bioprocess design
The overall design of a bioprocess. This involves both design of the
equipment to be used in the process and quantitative evaluation of how
the process is to be operated most efficiently. A key element in scale up of
processes from laboratory scale to industrial scale.
Metabolic engineering
The use of directed genetic modification to improve the properties of a
given cell,
e.g.
improved yield or productivity, expanded substrate range,
and production of novel products. Quantitative analysis of cellular
function plays an important role in this field.
Functional genomics
The qualitative assignment of function to open reading frames (ORFs).
This includes assignment of function to ORFs that have been identified
but have no known function as well as assignment of additional functions
to ORFs with already assigned functions. With the interaction of many
different processes it is necessary to consider interactions between the
many different components, and this may require quantitative analysis
Systems biology
Description of overall cell function through a quantitative study of the
interaction between all the individual components in the system (the cell),
e.g.
gene transcription, translation, protein-protein interaction, enzyme
catalysis of biochemical reactions, and receptor-metabolite interaction.
With a detailed description of the individual molecular events it is also
possible to consider cell-cell interactions, and hereby whole cultures can
be Quantitatively described.
In the future it is expected that the distance will be very short between fundamental discoveries and
process design, and biochemical engineers will play an important role in the different research
fields mentioned above. Table 1.1 gives our definition of these different areas.
1.1 The Structure of the Book
The present text has been named
Bioreaction Engineering Principles,
and it is the second edition of
a textbook that was first published in 1994. The text has been extensively rewritten and many new
topics are included. The goal is the same as in the original text: To provide students and industrial
researchers with some of the tools needed to analyze, and by analysis to improve the outcome of a
bioreaction process. The book can by no means claim to present the desired integrated view of the
whole bioprocess from selection of the strain to the downstream processing and further to the final
marketable product (separation processes are entirely absent from the text). Our focus is on the
central unit of the bioprocess, the bioreactor and the processes that occur in the reactor. Basically a
bioreaction can be divided into two parts: operation of the cell factory and the interaction of the cell
factories with each other and the environment imposed via operation of the bioreactor. With the
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